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Sun Wukong, the Monkey King




For 500 years the mountain pressed down upon him, only his head free from the crushing weight of the stonewrought prison the elder gods had summoned to halt his childish rebellion. Moss grew along the lines of his exposed face, tufts of grass sprouted from his ears; his vision was framed in wildflowers reaching from the soil around his cheeks. Most thought him long dead, tormented by the gods for waging war against the heavens until naught but his legend survived. But, as the stories go, the Monkey King cannot die.

So he waited. Until the gods came to offer a chance at absolution, he endured. And when they did come to name the price, Sun Wukong accepted their charge: he would accompany a young acolyte on a secret pilgrimage, protect him from demons and dangers of the road, and guide the man home in possession of a coveted relic. Do that, and humbly obey the human’s commands in service to their holy mission, and Wukong would prove himself reformed.

For a change, Sun Wukong fulfilled his oath to the gods with honor, and atoned for the sins of past insurrections. The acolyte, much learned in hardships, was returned to his home temple, relic in hand; and Wukong—finding himself for the first time in proper standing with any gods of consequence—was content for a short while to give up his old thirst for adventure and glory. But the Monkey King was born for mischief…and offending the gods never gets old.

Always in search of a good fight, Monkey King travels atop the trees aiming to spring from leafy cover and surprise his enemies. Calling upon an army of monkey soldiers to overwhelm opponents, this agile trickster revels in the chaos of battle, ready to slam his legendary staff down on any hopes of escape.





Boundless Strike



Point Target

Enemy Units

Damage Type

Monkey King enlarges his staff and slams it against the ground, stunning enemies in a line and damaging them with a critical hit based on his attack. Has True Strike

Stun Duration1.0/1.2/1.4/1.6



Critical Strike135%/165%/195%/225%Radius150Distance1100Cast Point0.4Cast Backswing0.5





Does not pierce Spell Immunity.


  • Can hit units up to 1350 range away.
  • Applies all of Monkey King’s on-hit effects as if he had performed a regular attack on the target.
  • Hitting an enemy hero with Boundless StrikeJingu Mastery
  • Boundless Strike can use a charge of Jingu Mastery to gain both damage and lifesteal. The bonuses affect all targets hit.

Tree Dance



Unit Target


Monkey King jumps to a tree and perches atop it. While perched, he gains the Primal Spring ability—a channeled leap attack. If Monkey King’s tree is destroyed, he falls and is stunned for a few seconds. Taking damage from enemy heroes while on the ground puts Tree Dance on cooldown.

Flying Vision (Day/Night)800/600



Cooldown When Hit3Self Stun Duration4Travel Speed800Cast Range900



Cast Point0.1


Cannot be cast while rooted.


  • Monkey King leaps at a speed of 700 toward the tree.
  • Tree Dance cooldown starts upon landing.
  • Right clicking the ground will climb off the tree.
  • Can’t hop off the tree while Tree Dance is on cooldown.
  • Casting spells and using items reveals fog around the tree, but does not reveal Monkey King.

Primal Spring



Point Target

Enemy Units

Damage Type

Monkey King springs out from his tree perch, damaging and slowing enemies in the area where he lands. Damage and slow amounts are in proportion to channel duration.

Damage140/210/280/350Movement Speed Slow20%/40%/60%/80%Slow Duration4Max Distance1000Impact Radius375Max Channel Time1.6Cast Point0




Does not pierce Spell Immunity.Dispellable.Cannot be cast while rooted.


  • Monkey King springs out at a speed of 1300.
  • This ability can only be used while Monkey King is perched on a tree.
  • The sound made while channeling Primal Spring can be heard by enemies.

Jingu Mastery




Enemy Units

Damage Type

Monkey King’s attacks awaken the Jingu Bang’s power. Upon the fourth hit on the same enemy hero, Monkey King earns four charged attacks that have bonus damage and lifesteal.

Required Hits4Charges4


Bonus Damage40/70/100/130



Bonus Lifesteal25%/40%/55%/70%Counter Duration7/8/9/10Buff Duration35Disabled by break.


  • Hitting an enemy hero with Boundless Strike
  • Boundless Strike can use a charge to gain both damage and lifesteal. The bonuses affect all targets hit.
  • Illusions do not increase the counter or display the debuff.
  • Hitting the same unit again adds to the hit counter and refreshes the duration.
  • After attaining charges, the counter will be disabled until all attack charges have been used.
  • The buff lasts until all charges are used or 35 seconds have passed.

Wukong’s Command



Point Target

Enemy Heroes

Damage Type

Monkey King creates a circular formation of soldiers that spread out from his position. If Monkey King leaves the area his soldiers disperse. The soldiers have Monkey King’s attack and only target heroes. Monkey King and all his soldiers receive bonus damage for the spell’s duration.

Bonus Armor12/18/24



Soldier Attack Interval1.2Duration13Rings2


Ring Radii300
750Soldiers Per Ring5 (Ring 1)
9 (Ring 2)


7 (Ring 3)

Cast Range550Cast Point1.2Cast Backswing0.37Soldier Duration


Building Attacking Activated Range




Spawns a monkey soldier near Monkey King every 4 seconds. These soldiers can attack any target and buildings when Monkey King is within 500 range of them.


  • The ultimate ends immediately if Monkey King dies or leaves the outermost ring.
  • Soldiers stand in formation and do not move. They attack any hero within 300 range if the hero is in the circle.
  • There are 9 soldiers guarding the edge of the circle and 5 soldiers guarding the center.
  • Soldiers do not receive Jingu Mastery
  • Each soldier has 400 ground vision.
  • Soldier attacks apply Monkey King’s on-hit effects. These attacks are considered to originate from the soldier, not Monkey King.
  • The soldiers do not attack Roshan.
  • The soldiers do not apply Basher/Abyssal bash.
  • Soldiers do not spawn if you are invisible or on trees.

Innate Abilities







No Target


Changes Monkey King’s shape to deceive opponents, using the environment nearby as inspiration for the disguise. Taking damage, attacking, using an item, or using an ability breaks Monkey King’s disguise.

Movement Speed200


Movement Speed (Courier Form)380Search Radius350Invulnerability Duration0.2


Cast Point0Cast Backswing0.53



Lowers cooldown, increase invulnerability duration, and removes slow penalty.



  • Does not mimic other effects of the target (e.g., cannot be pinged when disguised as a rune).
  • Copies a random object within the search radius:
    • Trees
    • Runes (including rune spots)
    • Aegis (at the Roshan pit)
    • Cheese (when cheese is droppable)
  • If not within range, Monkey King will randomly turn into any of the following:
    • Animal Courier/Flying Courier (allied)
    • Iron Branch
    • Clarity
    • Healing Salve
    • Town Portal Scroll
    • Tango
    • Banana (new or peeled)
  • If a courier is within range, Monkey King will always turn into a courier.
  • Monkey King is hidden on the minimap while disguised.
  • Monkey King cannot be auto-attacked while disguised. This results in lane creeps, neutral creeps, towers, and fountains ignoring him.

Revert Form



No Target


Reverts Monkey King’s shape to his original form.

Cast Point0Cast Backswing0.53

Talent Tree




Version History





Balance Changes


  • Base movement speed reduced from 305 to 300
  • Primal Spring cooldown increased from 19/17/15/13 to 20/18/16/14
  • Boundless Strike cooldown increased from 23/22/21/20 to 28/26/24/22


  • Wukong’s Command Soldier’s attack interval increased from 1.1 to 1.2


  • Boundless Strike critical damage reduced from 150/175/200/225% to 135/165/195/225%
  • Tree Dance cooldown increased from 1 to 1.45/1.3/1.15/1


  • Tree Dance cast point decreased from 0.3 to 0.1
  • Tree Dance travel speed increased from 700 to 800
  • Jingu Mastery lifesteal increased from 15/30/45/60 to 25/40/55/70
  • Reworked Shard: Now reduces Mischief Cooldown to 8s, increases the invulnerability time to 0.5s and disjoints projectiles on transformation. Mischief no longer reduces your move speed below your current one
  • Level 10 Talent +20 Attack Speed replaced with +0.3s Boundless Strike Stun
  • Level 20 Talent +40% Boundless Strike Crit replaced with +2 Jingu Mastery Charges


  • Boundless Strike stun duration increased from 0.7/1/1.3/1.6 to 1/1.2/1.4/1.6
  • Boundless Strike cooldown rescaled from 22 to 23/22/21/20
  • Tree Dance night vision increased from 400 to 600
  • Level 10 Talent changed from +400 Tree Dance Vision to +50% Tree Dance Vision


  • Tree Dance Shard cooldown reduced from 0.4 to 0.3
  • Wukong’s Command cooldown reduced from 130/110/90 to 120/100/80
  • Level 15 Talent increased from +100 Jingu Mastery Damage to +130


  • Base health regen reduced from 1.5 to 1
  • Wukong’s Command soldiers fixed to no longer ignore their attack cooldown when they miss
  • Tree Dance ground-to-tree range reduced from 1000 to 900
  • Boundless Strike cast range reduced from 1200 to 1100
  • Wukong’s Command scepter soldiers no longer attack Roshan
  • Wukong’s Command scepter soldiers now die when Monkey King dies
  • Level 15 Talent reduced from +475 Tree Dance Cast Range to +450
  • Level 20 Talent changed from +350 Primal Spring Damage to -7s Boundless Strike Cooldown
  • Level 25 Talent changed from +200 Armor Wukong’s Command to 0 Cooldown Primal Spring


  • Base Strength reduced from 19 to 18
  • Max damage reduced from 57 to 55
  • Wukong’s Command Scepter spawn interval increased from every 3.5 seconds to every 4 seconds


  • Shadow Tree Dance shard cooldown increased from 0.3 to 0.4


  • Base armor increased by 1
  • Mischief cooldown reduced from 20 to 15
  • Level 20 Talent increased from +320 Primal Spring Damage to +350
  • Level 25 Talent adjusted from +100 Wukong’s Command Armor to +200
  • Added Aghanim’s Shard
    • Upgrades Tree Dance
      • Lowers Tree Dance cooldown from 1 to 0.3 and cast point from 0.3 to 0.1


  • Boundless Strike stun duration increased from 0.4/0.8/1.2/1.6 to 0.7/1/1.3/1.6


  • Base armor increased by 3
  • Jingu Mastery damage reduced from 60/90/120/150 to 40/70/100/130
  • Jingu Mastery hit tracker duration reduced from 10 to 7/8/9/10
  • Wukong’s Command attack interval improved from 1.2 to 1.1
  • Level 10 Talent increased from +15 Attack Speed to +20
  • Level 10 Talent increased from +325 Tree Dance Vision AoE to +400
  • Level 15 Talent increased from +80 Jingu Mastery Damage to +100


  • Level 25 Talent increased from +80 Wukong’s Command Armor to +100


  • All talents are now about 20% weaker


  • Base armor increased by 1
  • Level 15 Talent increased from +75 Jingu Mastery Damage to +100


  • Tree Dance cooldown reduced from 1.2 to 1
  • Level 10 Talent increased from +300 Tree Dance Vision AoE to +400


  • Added Scepter upgrade:
    • Spawns a monkey soldier near you every 3.5 seconds
    • These soldiers last 12 seconds
    • Soldiers do not spawn if you are invisible or on trees
    • These soldiers can attack any target
    • (They will only attack buildings if you are within 500 range of them)


  • Mischief now makes you immune to damage briefly, rather than invulnerable


  • Base Movement Speed increased by 5
  • Wukong’s Command attack rate improved from 1.3 to 1.2


  • Mischief invulnerability duration reduced from 0.3 to 0.2


  • Mischief will now always transform into a courier when nearby another courier
  • Mischief now grants you 0.3 seconds of invulnerability when transforming into another unit
  • Mischief cooldown increased from 3 to 20


  • Wukong’s Command armor increased from 8/14/20 to 12/18/24


  • Primal Spring mana cost reduced from 130/120/110/100 to 100


  • Wukong’s Command soldier attack rate improved from 1.4 to 1.3


  • Base damage increased from 30 to 32
  • Fixed Mischief not showing the right particles for the first bounty rune
  • Level 10 Talent increased from +150 Tree Dance Vision AoE to +300
  • Level 15 Talent increased from +300 Tree Dance Cast Range to +600
  • Level 20 Talent increased from +300 Primal Spring Damage to +400


  • Base HP regen increased from 1.5 to 3
  • Base movement speed reduced from 305 to 300
  • Base damage reduced from 33 to 30
  • Jingu Mastery bonus damage rescaled from 75/100/125/150 to 60/90/120/150
  • Monkey King no longer destroys trees he is standing on during Scepter Stampede
  • Reworked Talent Tree


  • Boundless Strike cooldown reduced from 25 to 22
  • Wukong’s Command Attack Interval improved from 1.6 to 1.4


  • Level 10 Talent increased from +10% Evasion to +12% Evasion
  • Boundless Strike critical damage increased from 1.4/1.6/1.8/2× to 1.5/1.75/2/2.25×
  • Primal Spring max damage increased from 100/180/260/340 to 140/210/280/350


  • Tree Dance cooldown reduced from 1.4 to 1.2
  • Base HP regen increased from 0.75 to 1.5
  • Level 10 Talent from +5 Armor to +10% Evasion


  • Wukong’s Command attack cooldown improved from 1.7 to 1.6


  • Wukong’s Command no longer provides 50/70/90 bonus damage
  • Wukong’s Command provides you with 8/14/20 bonus armor
  • Wukong’s Command army no longer copy Basher/Abyssal
  • Wukong’s Command attack rate improved from 2 to 1.7
  • Fixed Urn of Shadows sometimes wasting charges during Wukong’s Command
  • Fixed Tree Dance causing Monkey King to temporarily have bigger vision than normal


  • Boundless Strike stun duration reduced from 0.5/1/1.5/2 to 0.4/0.8/1.2/1.6
  • Primal Spring mana cost rescaled from 100/110/120/130 to 130/120/110/100
  • Primal Spring slow from 30/45/60/75% to 20/40/60/80%
  • Primal Spring cooldown from 16 to 19/17/15/13
  • Strength gain increased from 2.2 to 2.5
  • Wukong’s Command cooldown increased from 100/85/70 to 130/110/90


  • Primal Spring slow rescaled from 40/50/60/70% to 30/45/60/75%
  • Spring wind up sound effect can be heard by nearby enemies


  • Added to Captains Mode
  • Jingu Mastery buff now has a max duration of 35 seconds
  • Tree Dance night vision reduced from 800 to 400
  • Wukong’s Command duration rescaled from 13/14/15 to 13


  • Base armor reduced from 0 to -3
  • Jingu Mastery bonus damage from 80/120/160/200 to 75/100/125/150
  • Jingu Mastery lifesteal from 20/30/40/50% to 15/30/45/60%
  • Wukong’s Command no longer continues while reincarnating
  • Level 15 Talent from +20 Movement Speed to +75 Jingu Mastery Damage
  • Level 20 Talent from +15 Strength to +20% Magic Resistance
  • Level 25 Talent from +25% Magic Resistance to +25 Strength


  • Fixed Jingu Mastery ignoring armor for its lifesteal calculation
  • Jingu Mastery counter duration reduced from 15 to 10 seconds
  • Boundless Strike critical strike rescaled from 200% to 140/160/180/200%


  • New Hero

Notable Players




See also












[Update] The Story of Sun Wukong, the Monkey King | monkey king 2017 – POLLICELEE

One of the most famous primate characters in world literature appears in the great Chinese classic  (Xiyouji, 西遊記, 1592 CE). The story follows the adventures of Sun Wukong (孫悟空, a.k.a. “Monkey”) (fig. 1), an immortal rhesus macaque demon, who gains extraordinary power from long years of spiritual cultivation and rebels against the primacy of heaven. Like Loki in Norse mythology and Lucifer in Judeo-Christian mythology, this trickster god falls from grace when a supreme deity, in this case the Buddha, banishes him to an earthly prison below. But unlike his western counterparts, the monkey repents, becoming a Buddhist monk and agreeing to use his abilities to protect a priest on his journey to collect sutras from India. What follows is a concise overview of Monkey’s story. It will primarily focus on the first seven of the novel’s one hundred chapters, but chapters eight through one hundred will be briefly touched upon, along with a lesser-known literary sequel to .

In the beginning, the mystical energies of heaven and earth and the light of the sun and moon come together to impregnate a boulder high atop the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit (Huaguo shan, 花果山), an island that lies in a vast ocean near the Aolai Country (Aolai guo, 傲來國) of the Eastern Pūrvavideha continent (Dongshengshen zhou, 東勝神洲). The stone gestates for countless ages until the Zhou Dynasty (1046–256 BCE), when it hatches a stone egg that is eroded by the elements into a simian shape. The Stone Monkey (Shihou, 石猴) awakens and crawls around, before bowing to the four cardinal directions as light bursts forth from his eyes. The light is so bright that it reaches heaven, alarming the August Jade Emperor (Yuhuang dadi, 玉皇大帝) and his celestial retinue. The light soon subsides, however, once he ingests food for the first time.

The Stone Monkey happens upon other primates on the island and becomes their king when he proves himself in a test of bravery by blindly leaping through a waterfall and discovering a long-forgotten immortal’s cave. He rules the mountain for nearly four centuries before the fear of death finally creeps in. One of his primate advisers notes that only Daoist immortals and Buddhist saints can avoid death, and so he suggests the king find a transcendent to teach him the secrets of eternal life. Monkey sets sail on a makeshift raft and explores the world for ten years, adopting human dress and language along way. His quest takes him to the Western Aparagodāniya continent where he is finally accepted as a student by the Buddho-Daoist sage Subhuti (Xuputi, 须菩提). He is given the religious name Sun Wukong, meaning “monkey awakened to the void” or “monkey who realizes sunyata“. The sage teaches him the seventy-two methods of earthly transformation, or endless ways of changing his shape and size; cloud somersaulting, a type of flying that allows him to travel 108,000 li with a single leap; all manner of magical spells to command gods and spirits; traditional medicine; armed and unarmed martial arts; and, most importantly, an internal breathing method that results in his immortality. He is later disowned by the sage for selfishly showing off his new found magical skills to his less accomplished classmates.

Sun eventually returns to his island home and faces a demon whom had taken control of it during his prolonged absence. After killing the monster, he realizes that he needs a weapon to match his celestial power, and so his adviser suggests that he go to the undersea palace of Ao Guang (敖廣), the Dragon King of the Eastern Sea, to find such a weapon. There, he tries out several weapons weighing thousands of pounds, but each one is too light. He finally settles on a massive nine ton iron pillar that was originally used by Yu the Great (大禹), a mythical king of the Xia Dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BCE), to set the depths of the fabled world flood, as well as to calm the seas. Named the “‘As-You-Wish’ Gold-Banded Cudgel” (Ruyi jingu bang, 如意金箍棒), the iron responds to Sun’s touch and follows his command to shrink or grow to his whim—as small as a needle or as tall as the sky—thus signifying that this weapon was fated to be his. In addition to the staff, Monkey bullies the Dragon King’s royal brothers into giving him a magical suit of armor.

Shortly after returning home to the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit, he shows off his new weapon by turning into a frightful cosmic giant and commanding the staff to grow, with the top touching the highest heaven and the bottom the lowest hell. This display of power prompts demon kings of the seventy-two caves to submit to his rule and host a drunken party in his honor. Soon after falling asleep, Sun is visited by two psychopomps who drag his soul to the Chinese underworld of Diyu (地獄) in chains. There he learns that, according to the Ledgers of Life and Death, it is his time to die. This greatly enrages Monkey for he is no longer subject to the laws of heaven since he had achieved immortality. He plucks the iron cudgel from his ear (where he keeps it the size of a needle) and begins to display his martial prowess. This so scares the denizens of hell that King Yama (Yanluo wang, 閻羅王), ruler of the underworld, begs him to halt his immortal rage. Sun orders the ledger containing his information to be brought out and he promptly crosses out his name with ink, as well as the names of all monkeys on earth, thus making them immortal too. He wakes up in the mortal world when his soul returns to his body.


Fig. 1 – A modern depiction of Sun Wukong (by the author) (larger version).

Both the Eastern Dragon King and King Yama submit memorials to heaven concerning Sun’s misconduct. But the court adviser, an embodiment of the planet Venus, convinces the August Jade Emperor to give Sun the menial position of “Keeper of the Heavenly Horses” (Bimawen, 弼馬温) in order to avoid further conflict. Monkey accepts and steadfastly performs his duties, that is until he learns from an assistant that he’s not a full-fledged god but a glorified stable boy. He immediately storms out of the heavenly gates and returns home to proclaim himself the “Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qitian dasheng, 齊天大聖) in rebellion. Heaven mobilizes an army of powerful demon hunters, including the Heavenly King Li Jing (Li Jing tianwang, 李靖天王) and his son, the child god Prince Nezha (哪吒), but they all fall to Monkey’s magical and martial might. The embodiment of the planet Venus once again steps in to convince the August Jade Emperor to acquiesce to Monkey’s wishes, thereby granting him the empty title of Great Sage Equaling Heaven and even promoting him to be the “Guardian of the Immortal Peach Groves”.

Sun tours the heavenly orchard housing the magical peaches that ripen every few thousand years. The sweet aroma of his charge is too much for him to resist, and so he eats all but the youngest life-prolonging fruits. His theft is soon discovered when fairy attendants of the Queen Mother of the West (Xiwangmu, 西王母), an ancient primordial goddess, arrive to pick the choicest specimens for her long-awaited immortal peach banquet. It is from these fairies that Monkey learns he has not been invited due to his rough nature. Enraged, Sun then incapacitates the fair maidens with magic and crashes the party before the guests arrive. He eats all of the celestial food and drinks all of the immortal wine, and then drunkenly stumbles into the laboratory of Laozi (老子), the supreme god of Daoism. There, he gobbles up the deity’s alchemically-derived pills of immortality, thus increasing his level of invincibility.

Sun returns home once again to await the coming storm of heavenly forces. Tired of the demon’s antics, the August Jade Emperor calls up seventy-two heavenly generals, comprising the most powerful Buddhist and Daoist gods, and 100,000 celestial soldiers. In response, Monkey mobilizes his own army comprising the demon kings of the seventy-two caves and all manner of animal spirits, including his own monkey soldiers. But soon after the battle commences, the demon kings fall to the heavenly forces, forcing Sun to take on three heads and six arms and multiply his iron cudgel to meet the onslaught. Once again, the heavenly army is no match for him. However, he soon loses his nerve when his monkey children are captured in great heavenly nets. He flees with Lord Erlang (Erlang shen, 二郎神), a master of magic and the nephew of the August Jade Emperor, taking chase. The two battle through countless animal transformations, each trying to one-up the other. Monkey is finally captured when Laozi drops a magical steel bracelet on his head, incapacitating him long enough for Erlang’s celestial hound to bite hold of his leg.

Sun is taken to heaven to be executed for his crimes, but fire, lightning, and edged weapons have no effect on his invincible body. Laozi then suggests that they put him inside of the deity’s mystical eight trigrams furnace to reduce the demon into ashes. They check the furnace forty-nine days later expecting to see his rendered remains; however, Monkey jumps out unscathed, having found protection in the wind element (xun, 巽). But intense smoke inside the furnace had greatly irritated his eyes, refining his pupils the color of gold and giving them the power to see for hundreds of miles, as well as to recognize the dark auras of demons in disguise. He overturns the furnace and begins to cause havoc in heaven with his iron cudgel. The monkey’s anger cannot be contained, and so the August Jade Emperor beseeches the Buddha (Rulai, 如来) in the Western Paradise to intervene. The “Enlightened One” appears and makes Sun a wager that, if he can jump out of his hand, the macaque will become the new ruler of heaven. Monkey agrees to the wager and jumps into his palm. With one tremendous leap, Sun speeds towards the reaches of heaven, clouds whizzing by him in a blur of colors as he travels across the sky. He lands before five great pillars, thinking them to be the edge of the cosmos. He tags one of the pillars with his name and urinates at the base of another in order to prove that he had been there. Upon returning, Sun demands that the Buddha live up to his end of the bargain, yet the Enlightened One explains that the baneful spirit had never left his palm. But before Monkey can do anything, the Buddha overturns his hand, pushing it out the gates of heaven, and slamming it onto earth, transforming it into the Five Elements Mountain (Wuxing shan, 五行山). There, Sun is imprisoned for his crimes against heaven.


Chapters thirteen to one hundred tell how six hundred years later Sun is released during the Tang Dynasty (618-907) to help escort the Buddhist monk Tripitaka (Sanzang, 三藏) (whose early story is told in chapters eight to twelve), a disciple of the Buddha in a previous life, on a quest to retrieve salvation-bestowing scriptures from India. The Bodhisattva Guanyin (觀音) gives the monk a golden headband (jingu quan, 金箍圈) as a means to reign in Monkey’s unruly nature. It tightens around Sun’s head whenever a magic formula is recited, causing him great pain. In addition, Guanyin gives Monkey three magic hairs on the back of his neck that can transform into anything he desires to aid in his protection of the monk. Along the way, the two meet other monsters-turned-disciples—Zhu Bajie (猪八戒), the lecherous pig demon, Sha Wujing (沙悟净), the complacent water demon, and the White Dragon Horse (Bailongma, 白龍馬), a royal serpent transformed into an equine—who agree to aid in the monk’s defense. Monkey battles all sorts of ghosts, monsters, demons, and gods along the way. In the end, he is granted Buddhahood and given the title of the “Victorious Fighting Buddha” (Dou zhanzheng fo, 鬥戰勝佛) for protecting Tripitaka over the long journey.

A continuation of the novel called  (Xiyoubu, 西游补, 1640) takes place between chapters 61 and 62 of the original. In the story, the Monkey King wanders from one adventure to the next, using a magic tower of mirrors and a Jade doorway to travel to different points in time. In the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BCE), he disguises himself as Consort Yu in order to locate a magic weapon needed for his quest to India. During the Song Dynasty (960–1279), he serves in place of King Yama as the judge of Hell. After returning to the Tang Dynasty, he finds that his master Tripitaka has taken a wife and become a general charged with wiping out the physical manifestation of desire (desire being a major theme running through the novelette). Monkey goes on to take part in a great war between all the kingdoms of the world, during which time he faces one of his own sons in battle. In the end, he discovers an unforeseen danger that threatens Tripitaka’s life.

Stories about Sun Wukong have enthralled people the world over for centuries. His adventures first became popular via oral folktale performances during the Song Dynasty. These eventually coalesced into the earliest known version of the novel, The Story of How Tripitaka of the Great Tang Procures the Scriptures (Da Tang Sanzang qujing shihua, 大唐三藏取經詩話), published during the 13th-century. Since the anonymous publishing of the complete novel in the 16th-century, Monkey has appeared in numerous paintings, poems, books, operatic stage plays, and films (both live action and animated). He was sometimes “channeled”, along with other martial spirits, by citizen soldiers of the anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901). There is also a monkey-based martial art named in his honor. It is interesting to note that there are some people in southern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore who worship him as a patron deity. Thus, Sun became so popular that he jumped from the pages of fiction to take his place on the family altar.

Copies of The Story were discovered in Japan among a 17th-century catalog of books in the Kozanji Temple (高山寺, Ch: Gaoshan si). No copies are known to exist in China, which suggests this version came to the island many centuries ago. The complete Ming edition of the novel came to Japan in the late 18th-century, where it was translated in bits and pieces over the course of some seventy years. However, Monkey did not become immensely popular until the first complete translation of the novel was published in four parts between 1806 and 1839. The last part was illustrated with woodblocks by Taito II (fl. 1810-1853), a noted student of famous artist Hokusai (1760-1849). Other Japanese artists, such as Kubo Shunman (1757-1820) and Yoshitoshi (1839–1892) (fig. 2), produced beautiful full color woodblock prints of Sun.

Like in China, Monkey has been adapted in all kinds of Japanese media. By far, his most famous adaptation is the manga and anime character Son Goku (孫悟空) (fig. 3) from the (Jp:ドラゴンボール; Ch: Qi longzhu, 七龍珠) franchise (1984-present). Like Sun, Goku has a monkey tail, knows martial arts, fights with a magic staff, and rides on a cloud. His early adventures in (manga: 1984-1995; anime: 1986-1989) see him traveling the world in search of seven wish-granting “dragon balls”, while also perfecting his fighting abilities and participating in a world martial arts tournament. Several of the supporting characters, such as Oolong (ウーロン), a lecherous anthropomorphic pig who can change his shape, a nod to Zhu Bajie, were directly influenced by the novel. (manga: 1988-1995; anime: 1989-1996), a continuation of the comic book and animated TV show, follows Goku as an adult and reveals that he is actually a humanoid alien sent as a child to destroy Earth. He arrived in a spherical spaceship that recalls the stone egg from which Sun Wukong was formed. But instead of destroying the planet, he becomes its stalwart protector and faces extraterrestrial menaces from beyond the stars. Goku’s adventures have continued in the sequels  (1996-1997),  (2015-2018), and  (2018-present).

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